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The way to make a {custom} theme in Angular Materials – freeCodeCamp.org

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Angular Materials is a good library that implements Materials Design for Angular 2+. The official doc is enough concerning the part usages, whereas there are few articles about the best way to customise the theme itself, particularly, the colours used within the theme.

On this submit I want to summarize what I’ve discovered these months from customizing Angular Materials themes.

Notice this text is NOT about AngularJS Materials, which is used for AngularJS 1.x.

Associated Posts

Some widespread posts about customizing themes are:

I didn’t discover different helpful posts and would respect if anybody may present some assets within the feedback.

The way to Create a Customized Theme

Creating a cloth theme is very simple: you solely want to choose three colours — major, accent, and warn — and Angular Materials will do the remaining for you. The fabric palette web page explains the way it works clearly, and you can even create a theme visually with Colour Software.

With regard to code, all you have to do is to create the next theme file:

// theme.scss
@import '~@angular/materials/theming';
$my-theme-primary: mat-palette($mat-green);
$my-theme-accent : mat-palette($mat-amber);
$my-theme-warn : mat-palette($mat-red);
$my-theme: mat-light-theme(
$my-theme-primary,
$my-theme-accent,
$my-theme-warn
);

Then you have to apply this theme in your fundamental fashion.scss file:

@import "theme.scss";
@embrace mat-core();
@embrace angular-material-theme($my-theme);

The way to Use Customized Theme in Elements

After creating our personal theme, necessities like this can rise:

I need to create a textual content field. The textual content shade, background shade, and border shade ought to all come from our personal theme, not by laborious coding.

This requirement is fairly widespread — anyway, having the ability to be utilized in elements is precisely why we need to create a {custom} theme. The issue is how.

The mixin strategy

The primary official doc I shared proposed a method of utilizing SCSS’s mixin. I name it a “bottom-up” strategy, which incorporates the next steps:

  1. Every part defines a theme mixin, and retrieves colours from $theme parameter.
  2. A world theme.scss defines the {custom} theme, then contains all of the part theme mixins and calls them with the {custom} theme.

Along with the theme.scss definition talked about above, every part must create a theme file like this:

// src/app/comp-a/comp-a.theme.scss
@import '~@angular/materials/theming';
@mixin comp-a-theme($theme) {          // outline mixin
$major: map-get($theme, major); // retrieve shade def
button { // apply theme to part
background-color: mat-color($major);
}
}

And possibly you need a custom-theme.scss to import all of the part stage themes:

// src/app/custom-theme.scss
@import '~@angular/materials/theming';
@import 'src/app/comp-a/comp-a.theme';
@import 'src/app/comp-b/comp-b.theme';
@mixin custom-themes($theme) {
@embrace comp-a-theme($theme);
@embrace comp-b-theme($theme);
}

Then import the above custom-theme.scss in your theme.scss:

// theme.scss
...
@import './custom-theme';
@embrace custom-themes($my-theme);

This hierarchy works, and possibly is the one method when you have to help a number of themes.

Nonetheless, more often than not we solely help one theme, and utilizing a mixin could possibly be cumbersome. Primarily there are three disadvantages with this strategy:

  1. Each single shade reference wants a separate .theme.scss file.
  2. custom-theme.scss should know precisely which elements present {custom} themes. This creates pointless dependencies.
  3. Most significantly, part stage theme information aren’t encapsulated.

The primary and second factors are fairly self-explanatory. Let me clarify a bit bit about level 3. This includes some background information known as “View Encapsulation”.

Angular makes use of a method known as “View Encapsulation” to hold part CSS native. In different phrases, guidelines outlined for one part will keep in that part and won’t have an effect on different elements.

On this method you’ll be able to outline CSS class identify freely in your part with out worrying about naming conflicts. Nonetheless, view encapsulation is completed provided that the CSS is outlined by @Element, i.e. @Element({ styleUrls: ['./comp-a.scss'] }).

As to our {custom} theme file comp-a.theme.scss, since it’s imported straight by custom-theme.scss, its guidelines aren’t encapsulated so it is going to apply to all components on the web page. Within the instance above, I used the next code (which was WRONG!):

@mixin comp-a-theme($theme) {
button { ... } // This may apply to ALL buttons!
}

However this can apply the fashion to all of the buttons as a substitute of these buttons belonging to comp-a solely. It’s a must to do one thing like comp-a button in an effort to make this work appropriately.

The direct strategy

Due to this fact I suggest a greater strategy. As an alternative of utilizing a mixin, we let every part embrace the theme file and use the colour definition straight.

On this strategy, the part theme file will appear to be this:

// NOTE: simply do that in your common scss file.
// No have to create separate theme file!
// src/app/comp-a/comp-a.scss
@import 'src/theme.scss';
$major: map-get($my-theme, major);
button {
background-color: mat-color($major);
}

And that’s all.

Let’s see how this works. First, theme associated guidelines are put into the part SCSS file, so no further part stage theme file required. Second, the principle theme.scss doesn’t have to know part stage themes (because it doesn’t have to import them), so a easy theme definition is sufficient. Third, the part SCSS file is used with @Element so it’s encapsulated appropriately, which suggests we will merely outline guidelines for button.

Predefined Theme Keys

Most likely you’ve got observed the subsequent drawback. What are the foreground, major in above theme information ( map-get($my-theme, major))? Are there another keys I can use?

Effectively these “keys” check with totally different colours outlined within the theme. Nonetheless I couldn’t discover any paperwork explaining these “keys”, so the one method I may discover out is to learn the supply code. (Though it’s mentioned that good programmers ought to learn the code, having to learn the code is certainly not signal for a library.)

Open node_modules/@angular/materials/_theming.scss and you will note the definitions for these keys. For future reference, I want to summarize the keys right here.

$theme
|- major
|- accent
|- warn
|- foreground
| |- base
| |- divider
| |- dividers
| |- disabled
| |- disabled-button
| |- disabled-text
| |- hint-text
| |- secondary-text
| |- icon
| |- icons
| |- textual content
| |- slider-min
| |- slider-off
| `- slider-off-active
|- background
| |- status-bar
| |- app-bar
| |- background
| |- hover
| |- card
| |- dialog
| |- disabled-button
| |- raised-button
| |- focused-button
| |- selected-button
| |- selected-disabled-button
| |- disabled-button-toggle
| |- unselected-chip
| `- disabled-list-option
`- is-dark // bool, whether or not darkish theme or not

For instance, if you wish to render a disabled textual content in your part, you could need to use the next code:

$foreground: map-get($my-theme, foreground);
.disabled-text {
shade: mat-color($foreground, disabled-text);
}





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