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A Easy CSS Animation Tutorial – freeCodeCamp.org

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These diagrams are from CSS Visible Dictionary – seize a replica right here.

Take a look at the above determine. Quickly as .animateClass is assigned to a component, animation will begin enjoying. The category has a hyperlink to animationName. It should match the title specified by @keyframes rule. This animation is about to final 3 seconds or 3000ms as specified.

Observe: Easing provides taste to your animation — by offering a curve describing relative velocity of your animation at a specific spot on the time line.

We’ll cowl easing and all different CSS animation properties all through the rest of this text, based mostly on this easy instance.

So How Does It Work?

You may animate any CSS property whose bodily place, dimensions, angle or shade could be modified. Fundamental animation is surprisingly easy to implement utilizing keyframes.

CSS animation keyframes are specified utilizing the @keyframes directive. A keyframe is just the factor’s state at a single level on animation time line.

CSS animation engine will mechanically interpolate between animation keyframes. All you should do is specify the state of CSS properties firstly and finish factors of the animation.

As soon as all of our keyframe areas are arrange (which are sometimes laid out in percentages) all we have to do is about up the defaults for our unique factor we want to animate.

Then create a named animation utilizing @keyframes animationName {…} format, that shops all of the keyframes. We’ll check out that in only a second!

Lastly, create a particular class that can outline your animation’s length, route, repeatability, and easing sort… and hyperlink it to the identical animation title that was utilized by @keyframes directive. This course of is defined visually within the following sections.

CSS Animation Properties

The animation property is the short-hand to the eight stand-alone animation properties described beneath:

animation-name — title of the keyframe specified by @keyframes rule.

animation-duration — length of the animation in milliseconds.

animation-timing-function — specify easing operate.

animation-delay — add delay earlier than animation begins enjoying.

animation-iteration-count — variety of instances animation ought to play.

animation-direction — play forwards, backwards or alternate sequence.

animation-fill-mode — state of the animation when it isn’t enjoying.

animation-play-state — specify whether or not animation is operating or is paused.

Within the following sections we’ll discover every one visually.


The alpha-numeric animation identifier title:

Animation title should discuss with the one specified by @keyframes directive:


You often need to plan the size of your animation first.

As you possibly can see within the above determine, you possibly can specify length in seconds or milliseconds, should you want extra precision. For instance 3000ms is similar as 3s and 1500ms is similar as 1.5s

It’s also attainable to assign a delay in milliseconds earlier than animation begins enjoying.


You may assign any of the 4 values to the animation-direction property:

The above determine shows the values regular, reverse, alternate and alternate-reverse and their results.

CSS animation engine will mechanically interpolate between frames. An interpolated animation state is just any state between any two frames. As the colour transitions from yellow to teal, it is going to steadily change over the time period specified by the animation property (right here, as a short-hand).


Variety of instances animation might be repeated.

Play animation 1 time (default).
Repeat animation 2 instances.
Repeat animation 3 instances.

As you possibly can see, the apparent drawback right here is that the animation will ”soar” again to the primary body once more.

You need to use a number of the different animation properties to guarantee that this leaping doesn’t happen. You may design your animation to loop, or tweak different properties based mostly on specific UI dynamics you’re in search of. This fashion you possibly can design solely ”half” of your animation, and tweak properties to play it forwards or backwards, let’s say on mouse-in and mouse-out occasions.


Easing is specified by animation-timing-function. It provides character to your animation. That is achieved by adjusting velocity of the animation at any given level on the time line. Begin, Center and Finish factors are of specific curiosity. Every easing sort is outlined by a Bézier curve operate.

Animation-timing-function: linear
Animation-timing-function: ease
Animation-timing-function: ease-in
Animation-timing-function: ease-out
Animation-timing-function: ease-in-out
You may create your personal cubic Bézier curves.
Two management factors P1 and P2 are handed to cubic-bezier operate as arguments. The vary of values is between 0.0 and 1.0.

As a result of easing is decided by an equation, you possibly can provide your personal arguments to create distinctive curves to attain a specific sort of velocity not 198 accessible by the predefined values. As proven within the charts beneath, you possibly can recreate the usual set of values utilizing a cubic-bezier operate:

In case you want barely totally different curve in your UI parts, attempt to mess around with the values till you obtain the impact you’re trying for


When an animation is just not at present enjoying, it’s set to fill mode state. The property animation-fill-mode fills a non-playing animation with a selected set of properties, often taken from first or final keyframes.

Attainable values:

none / Don’t apply any kinds to the animated factor earlier than or after animation is executing.

forwards / Retain kinds from the final keyframe (could be affected by animation-direction and animation-iteration-count.)

backwards / Get kinds from the primary keyframe (could be affected by animation-direction) additionally retain this type throughout animation-delay state.

each / Lengthen animation properties in each instructions (forwards and backwards.)


Property animation-play-state specifies whether or not animation is operating or paused.

Attainable values:

paused / Animation is paused.

operating / Animation is at present enjoying.

For instance, you possibly can pause animation on mouse hover:

Set animation state to paused.

Ahead & Inverse Kinematics

There isn’t any out-of-the-box assist for Inverse Kinematics in CSS. It’s a must to write customized JavaScript to code the physics.

However, the impact could be simulated by utilizing rework: rotate(diploma) and transform-origin property to specify the pivot level between a dad or mum and a baby factor.

Rotate round attachment level on root factor.

The Root level is the place the place the first factor is hooked up to both one other dad or mum factor, or an imaginary static level in area. If Aspect A strikes, it should have an effect on Aspect B, in such method as in the event that they have been hooked up to one another at a Rotation Pivot Level.

This implies, calculating all types of angles and lengths utilizing trigonometric formulation. We are able to do that with JavaScript, or by utilizing an current vector / trigonometry library. However fortunately, CSS already offers assist for most of these factor dynamics by way of the native transform-origin property

Ahead Kinematics is when by shifting Aspect A the motion of Aspect B can be affected (like a series response) as if they’re hooked up to one another at a shared pivot level.

Inverse Kinematics is the reverse of that: the bodily motion of Aspect B impacts Aspect A offered that it’s hooked up to some static level or one other dad or mum factor. If not, the 2 parts can float in area 🙂 It is a lot like bone joints in an animated character!

Night time Stroll

Kyle Wetton is the creator of one of many biggest examples of inverse kinematics I’ve seen, used to make a strolling cycle animation of a human determine completely in pure CSS.

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The diagrams on this tutorial have been influenced instantly by the manuscript!

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